But they were those who gave the economic tone and those who marked the political rhythm of the country. They were, in addition, the authentic Americans and none of them believed that the prosperity of his great country could have an abrupt end like the one that happened a year after the speech of the president of him. 3-5. The frontal attack on democracy: Fascisms in the twenty years there was an emergence of new political movements that have in common the rejection of the liberal parliamentary system, hate almost visceral to socialism and communism (the obsession by “the Red danger “), a nationalism accused with strong xenophobic features and a strong repressive character. No European nation was fought from this phenomenon, although not in all reached the same dimension nor did it unfold on the same way. Its full development took place in Italy and Germany, unique states where a new political form was implanted that can be qualified as “fascism”. In the East countries and in the Mediterranean, parties and political groups of a fascist character emerged, almost always initially inspired by the Italian example, but they could not conquer power. In these countries, an authoritarian regimes were established, deeply conservative, but lacked, as E. R. Tannenbaum (1975, 12), two basic features characteristic of fascism: the integration of the masses in the political project and the revolutionary nature. In these cases there was no deep reaction against bourgeois capitalist order, because these are countries with wide agricultural predominance and where the old dominant classes continued to exercise their power using the army and using the State’s apparatus. To this typology corresponds the regimes implanted in the twenties in Hungary by Miklos Hortthy, in Austria by Ignaz Seipel, in Spain by Primo de Rivera, in Portugal by General Carmona, in
The First World War accelerated the passage, characteristic of the second phase of the industrial revolution, of free competition capitalism to another of a oligopolistic nature determined by the merger of industrial capital and banking. The economy was controlled by large companies (posters and monopolies) against which they only maintained capacity for the best organized workers’ unionism and the State, which had increased its competences in economic matters during the war. Thus, those who were in a better position to deal with post-war economic difficulties were the capitalist oligarchy and the unionized workers employed in the great company, while they were with greater obstacles and many times the small industrial and owners were totally helpless. Rentists of all kinds, officials and non-landed farmers.